Alizarin, Madder, Parijaat, Natural Dye, Bagh Print, Ajrakh, Puru Print, Hand block print, Dabu

Showing posts with label Indigo. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Indigo. Show all posts

Sunday, 22 July 2018

Tarapur Print: A Craft Jewel of Madhya Pradesh

Background 

Ummedpura-Tarapur twin villages situated on the banks of "Maa" Gambhiri river in Neemuch district of Madhya Pradesh. It is a twin village demarcated by a bridge made on the river were famous for its 400 years or even older than this craft of Nandana hand block printing practiced in these two villages only by traditional "Hindu Chippa" community belongs to the Sant Namdev tradition supported by "Muslim Nilger" community famous for indigo dyeing. 

Limited to tribal market, laborious process, limited design and color combination,  and increasing cost of nandana print was the reason behind decrease in demand too. It was clearly an indication for them to do something new or stop the work. Many families stopped their traditional work of nandana 2 decades ago and started other business. Few families still continued their family tradition with concern for future of their tradition. While they were in dilemma to continue the craft or not few started searching for new markets and possibilities to innovate the existing techniques. In this time less than 10 families were left in this business who were practicing nandana hand block printing and sometimes other techniques of hand block printing. 

Tarapur print mal cotton stole

In this struggle period some 3 decades ago few exporters contacted hand block printer family of Late Shri Purushottamji Jhariya for indigo and different design combination in red and indigo color. Though they were doing it since ages but not commercially marketed well and it is how a new technique of block printing evolved.

In this technique they started concentrating on use of alizarin print (red and black) combining with indigo Indigo dabu work to get a red. black and indigo blue color combination with variety of block designs. 

They started calling this technique as "Alizer-Indigo" technique to differentiate it.

Tarapur print modal by modal Saree

Marketing as Tarapur print


When Pushyamitra co-founder of EcoFab started working with the family of Late Shri Purushottamji Jhariya in Tarapur some 3 years ago while doing his thesis started documenting the various techniques practiced by the 2 families left in this place comes to know about 4 techniques practiced by them were:

1. Alizarin print (Red & black) 

2. Dabu print (Resist techniques and mainly dyed with indigo)

3. Alizer Indigo print (Combination of Alizarin red and black & Dabu indigo)

4. Nandana print (Traditional signature craft of hand block printing)

Tarapur as a craft village and home to a varieties of craft of hand block printing was facing an identity crisis. Bagh and Bagru villages were already famous for its unique alizarin hand block printing depicting their geographical identity. Then it was decided by Pushyamitra with Jhariya borthers (Pawan Jhariya & Banwari Jhariya) to market this unique combination of alizarin print and dabu print as "Tarapur Print" in the market.

It is how name of Tarapur print came into existence. Today Tarapur print evolved as an important hand block printing technique and quite famous among craft lovers. 

 Tarapur print fine cotton Saree

 Tarapur print fine cotton Saree

Process

Process of Tarapur print is time consuming and laborious too as it is a combination of two different hand block printing known as Alizarin printing and Dabu printing. 

Fabric is first treated with a solution of soda ash, castor oil and sea salt now a days a ready combination known as TRO (turkey red oil) is available in the market is used. After this pre washing treatment fabric is dyed with harda (myrabalan) solution then it is ready for printing with alum mordant and paste made of iron rust and jaggery solution mixed with tamarind seed powder. 

Shri Pawan Jhariya doing washing process after alizarin printing

After printing it is kept for 2-3 days then washed in flowing river or in tank then it is dyed with alizarin using bhatti (boiling) process. After bhatti process fabric again printed with resist paste made from clay, gum and lime to hide red portion and where we need white design in base now fabric is dyed with indigo an kept for a day. After washing and post mordant fabric is ready to market.

Shri Banwari Jhariya seeing his printed clothes in Tarapur Print


Wednesday, 1 February 2017

History of Hand block Printing in India

History

Craft of hand block printing is a very old art used to print clothes using vegetable colors  with the help of wooden or metal blocks. A statue wearing the hand block printed scarf found on the site of "Mohe-Jo-Daro" traces the history of craft of hand block printing done in that place some 4000 years ago. In Indian sub-continent its origin or birth place is considered to be the Sindh province of today's Pakistan. ""Khatri"or "Chhippa"community mainly involved in the craft of hand block printing in this region since many centuries and later migrated to Gujarat and other parts of India to promote their craft and also in search of new regions to expand their business. In Rajasthan and some parts of Madhya Pradesh "Chippa" Community traces their roots with the "Sant Namdev" a devotional saint of 13th century and tailor by profession. This "Chippa" community consider themselves a descendant of Saint Namdev.

Present Scenario

Even today Bagh village and Tarapur villages in Madhya Pradesh, Kutch region of Gujarat, various towns and villages in Rajasthan,  in India are the major centers where craft of traditional hand block printing is practiced using the the traditional process it was practiced 400 to 1000 years ago with some minor changes. Traditionally vegetable colors were used in printing and dyeing of fabrics. 


Today there are many urban and rural centers of hand block printing chemical colors, direct colors and pigments used for printing and chemical dyes introduced. But the use of all these chemical colors not only polluting the sources of clean water but also not good for skin. Few researches suggested that most of the chemical dyes are unsafe for our skin and gave birth to many skin related diseases. Still there are few centers left in India where traditional process and vegetable colors used in printing and dyeing. 

Today EcoFab is promoting traditional craft of hand block printing by emphasizing more on using natural/herbal dyes and eco-friendly colors in the process.

Traditionally varieties of cotton and silk fabrics used in hand block printing industry but other natural fiber based fabrics like modal and viscose fabrics are also used in printing. 

Thursday, 26 January 2017

Nandana Hand Block Print: Magic of Indigo Dye Pot

“Nandana” – Magic of Indigo & Pomegranate rind dye

When asked why "Nandana" is called "Nandana"? Banwari Jariya belongs to the 6th generation of "Chippa" community of Tarapur answered that when hand block printing started by local "Chippa" community in Tarapur they were using Indigo maat or dye tank locally called as "Naand" (नांद) in Hindi, which means pot or hole in English.

So from a word "Naand" used for indigo dyeing tank in Hindi and fabric dipped in indigo dye tank multiple times was the reason behind using word "Nandana" for this craft of hand block printing practiced exclusively in Tarapur only.

Brief about Nandana Process

In Nandana hand block printing process fabric first printed with begar (Alum) and then dyed with alizarin to get red design pattern. After this fabric get printed with Dabu resist with "resin" paste, in local chhippa community it is called as "Daamar" (Coal-tar in English)  covering red designs and dipped into indigo dye tank to get deep indigo blue background. Traditionally resin paste is used as a better resist so that fabric get dipped into indigo tank minimum 5-6 times till it gets deep blue. "Resin" was boiled for 24 hours then it printed on the fabric while boiling.

In this step boiling resin produces a bad odor and also sometimes it spates on the skin of craftsman create rashes.  After this fabric get boiled in soda ash solution to remove the “resin” paste. Now after washing the resist paste it again printed with mud resist and then dipped into pomegranate rind dye. After performing this step fabric background becomes deep green to black, some parts which was printed with resist becomes yellow and red is remain there. Now fabric is ready for market. Today "resin" paste is replaced with "mud" resist due to heath issues of craftsman.

This dyeing craft of hand block printing only practiced in #Tarapur village situated on the banks of Ghambhiri River in Madhya Pradesh. Nandana is having 16 steps going through cumbersome process of printing and dyeing. Almost 100 families of Tarapur and Ummedpura village of Javad tehsil were involved in the craft. Now only 2 families are doing traditional hand block printing but they too left Nandana printing because of its tedious, time consuming process and no market reach.

Traditionally Nandana process involved use of 4 designs namely, Mirch, Champakali, Amba & Jalam buta. Later on one more design “Dholamaru” introduced in this craft. To create a single design 4 different blocks used in the Nandana technique. Basically market for Nandana printing was limited to tribal people of Jhabua, Ratlam, Mandsaur and Neemuch district of Madhya Pradesh only. When tribal got low cost screen printed hosiery material as an alternative they left wearing Nandana.

EcoFab started working with one of the hand block printer family of Tarapur village in the year 2015 who was interested in reviving Nandana printing. Today it is available in green and blue shade and other shades work is in process.

Peculiarity of traditional Nandana hand block printing are:

1. Use of natural mordant like alum to get red with alizarin, pomengranate peel and indigo to get green or black.
2. Use of fixed 5 designs right from small buti to big buta known as mirch, champakali, dholamaru, amba and jalam.
3. One design requires 3 different blocks.
4. Traditionally available in black background but now a day blue and green background also marketed as Nandana, because “Nand” is used in the process.
5. It’s a 16 step process technique.

Sometimes all 5 designs used in Nandana with red and white combination with indigo background considered as Nandana printing. Technically it comes under Tarapur printing which is a combination of alizarin and indigo hand block printing.

Since its inception Nanadana printing restricted to the tribal customer segment only so no development in terms of design and color variations done till date.

Traditionally Nandana is linked with both designs and cumbersome process.

Now with the intervention of EcoFab it is in the process of rejuvenation.

Green Base Nandana Saree

Black background Nandana Print Fabric

Green background Nandana Print Saree



For shopping and more visit: 
www.ecofab.in

www.facebook.com/ecofabbharat


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